These examples use a
pageviews stream and a
The Stream Processing Cookbook contains KSQL recipes that provide in-depth tutorials and recommended deployment scenarios.
- The corresponding Kafka topics must already exist in your Apache Kafka® cluster.
Create a stream with three columns on the Kafka topic that is named
KSQL can’t infer the topic’s data format, so you must provide the format of
the values that are stored in the topic. In this example, the values format
CREATE STREAM pageviews (viewtime BIGINT, userid VARCHAR, pageid VARCHAR) WITH (KAFKA_TOPIC='pageviews', VALUE_FORMAT='DELIMITED');
Associating Kafka message keys: The above statement does not make
any assumptions about the Kafka message key in the underlying Kafka
topic. However, if the value of the message key in Kafka is the same as
one of the columns defined in the stream in KSQL, you can provide such
information in the WITH clause. For instance, if the Kafka message key
has the same value as the
pageid column, you can write the CREATE
STREAM statement as follows:
CREATE STREAM pageviews (viewtime BIGINT, userid VARCHAR, pageid VARCHAR) WITH (KAFKA_TOPIC='pageviews', VALUE_FORMAT='DELIMITED', KEY='pageid');
Associating Kafka message timestamps: If you want to use the value
of one of the columns as the Kafka message timestamp, you can provide
such information to KSQL in the WITH clause. The message timestamp is
used in window-based operations in KSQL (such as windowed aggregations)
and to support event-time based processing in KSQL. For instance, if you
want to use the value of the
viewtime column as the message
timestamp, you can rewrite the above statement as follows:
CREATE STREAM pageviews (viewtime BIGINT, userid VARCHAR, pageid VARCHAR) WITH (KAFKA_TOPIC='pageviews', VALUE_FORMAT='DELIMITED', KEY='pageid', TIMESTAMP='viewtime');
- The corresponding Kafka topics must already exist in your Kafka cluster.
Create a table with several columns. In this example, the table has columns with primitive data
types, a column of
array type, and a column of
CREATE TABLE users (registertime BIGINT, gender VARCHAR, regionid VARCHAR, userid VARCHAR, interests array<VARCHAR>, contactinfo map<VARCHAR, VARCHAR>) WITH (KAFKA_TOPIC='users', VALUE_FORMAT='JSON', KEY = 'userid');
Note that specifying KEY is required in table declaration, see Key Requirements.
Working with streams and tables¶
Now that you have the
pageviews stream and
users table, take a
look at some example queries that you can write in KSQL. The focus is on
two types of KSQL statements: CREATE STREAM AS SELECT (a.k.a CSAS) and CREATE TABLE
AS SELECT (a.k.a CTAS). For these statements KSQL persists the results of the query
in a new stream or table, which is backed by a Kafka topic.
For this example, imagine you want to create a new stream by
pageviews in the following way:
viewtimecolumn value is used as the Kafka message timestamp in the new stream’s underlying Kafka topic.
- The new stream’s Kafka topic has 5 partitions.
- The data in the new stream is in JSON format.
- Add a new column that shows the message timestamp in human-readable string format.
useridcolumn is the key for the new stream.
The following statement will generate a new stream,
pageviews_transformed with the above properties:
CREATE STREAM pageviews_transformed WITH (TIMESTAMP='viewtime', PARTITIONS=5, VALUE_FORMAT='JSON') AS SELECT viewtime, userid, pageid, TIMESTAMPTOSTRING(viewtime, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS') AS timestring FROM pageviews PARTITION BY userid EMIT CHANGES;
[ WHERE condition ] clause to select a subset of data. If you
want to route streams with different criteria to different streams
backed by different underlying Kafka topics, e.g. content-based routing,
write multiple KSQL statements as follows:
CREATE STREAM pageviews_transformed_priority_1 WITH (TIMESTAMP='viewtime', PARTITIONS=5, VALUE_FORMAT='JSON') AS SELECT viewtime, userid, pageid, TIMESTAMPTOSTRING(viewtime, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS') AS timestring FROM pageviews WHERE userid='User_1' OR userid='User_2' PARTITION BY userid EMIT CHANGES;
CREATE STREAM pageviews_transformed_priority_2 WITH (TIMESTAMP='viewtime', PARTITIONS=5, VALUE_FORMAT='JSON') AS SELECT viewtime, userid, pageid, TIMESTAMPTOSTRING(viewtime, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS') AS timestring FROM pageviews WHERE userid<>'User_1' AND userid<>'User_2' PARTITION BY userid EMIT CHANGES;
When joining objects the number of partitions in each must be the same. You can use KSQL itself to create re-partitioned streams/tables as required. In this example you will join
users to the
pageviews_transformed topic, which has 5 partitions. First, generate a
users topic with a partition count to match that of
CREATE TABLE users_5part WITH (PARTITIONS=5) AS SELECT * FROM USERS EMIT CHANGES;
Now you can use the following query to create a new stream by joining the
pageviews_transformed stream with the
CREATE STREAM pageviews_enriched AS SELECT pv.viewtime, pv.userid AS userid, pv.pageid, pv.timestring, u.gender, u.regionid, u.interests, u.contactinfo FROM pageviews_transformed pv LEFT JOIN users_5part u ON pv.userid = u.userid EMIT CHANGES;
Note that by default all the Kafka topics will be read from the current offset (aka the latest available data); however, in a stream-table join, the table topic will be read from the beginning.
Aggregating, windowing, and sessionization¶
Watch the screencast of Aggregations in KSQL on YouTube.
Now assume that you want to count the number of pageviews per region. Here is the query that would perform this count:
CREATE TABLE pageviews_per_region AS SELECT regionid, count(*) FROM pageviews_enriched GROUP BY regionid EMIT CHANGES;
The above query counts the pageviews from the time you start the query until you terminate the query. Note that we used CREATE TABLE AS SELECT statement here since the result of the query is a KSQL table. The results of aggregate queries in KSQL are always a table because it computes the aggregate for each key (and possibly for each window per key) and updates these results as it processes new input data.
KSQL supports aggregation over WINDOW too. Let’s rewrite the above query so that we compute the pageview count per region every 1 minute:
CREATE TABLE pageviews_per_region_per_minute AS SELECT regionid, count(*) FROM pageviews_enriched WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE 1 MINUTE) GROUP BY regionid EMIT CHANGES;
If you want to count the pageviews for only “Region_6” by female users for every 30 seconds, you can change the above query as the following:
CREATE TABLE pageviews_per_region_per_30secs AS SELECT regionid, count(*) FROM pageviews_enriched WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE 30 SECONDS) WHERE UCASE(gender)='FEMALE' AND LCASE(regionid)='region_6' GROUP BY regionid EMIT CHANGES;
UCASE and LCASE functions in KSQL are used to convert the values of gender and regionid columns to upper and lower case, so that you can match them correctly. KSQL also supports LIKE operator for prefix, suffix and substring matching.
KSQL supports HOPPING windows and SESSION windows too. The following query is the same query as above that computes the count for hopping window of 30 seconds that advances by 10 seconds:
CREATE TABLE pageviews_per_region_per_30secs10secs AS SELECT regionid, count(*) FROM pageviews_enriched WINDOW HOPPING (SIZE 30 SECONDS, ADVANCE BY 10 SECONDS) WHERE UCASE(gender)='FEMALE' AND LCASE (regionid) LIKE '%_6' GROUP BY regionid EMIT CHANGES;
The next statement counts the number of pageviews per region for session windows with a session inactivity gap of 60 seconds. In other words, you are sessionizing the input data and then perform the counting/aggregation step per region.
CREATE TABLE pageviews_per_region_per_session AS SELECT regionid, count(*) FROM pageviews_enriched WINDOW SESSION (60 SECONDS) GROUP BY regionid EMIT CHANGES;
Sometimes, you may want to include the bounds of the current window in the result so that it is more easily accessible to consumers of the data. The following statement extracts the start and end time of the current session window into fields within output rows.
CREATE TABLE pageviews_per_region_per_session AS SELECT regionid, windowStart(), windowEnd(), count(*) FROM pageviews_enriched WINDOW SESSION (60 SECONDS) GROUP BY regionid EMIT CHANGES;
Working with arrays and maps¶
interests column in the
users table is an
strings that represents the interest of each user. The
column is a string-to-string
map that represents the following
contact information for each user: phone, city, state, and zipcode.
If you are using ksql-datagen, you can use quickstart=users_ to generate data that include the interests and contactinfo columns.
The following query will create a new stream from
that includes the first interest of each user along with the city and
zipcode for each user:
CREATE STREAM pageviews_interest_contact AS SELECT interests AS first_interest, contactinfo['zipcode'] AS zipcode, contactinfo['city'] AS city, viewtime, userid, pageid, timestring, gender, regionid FROM pageviews_enriched EMIT CHANGES;
Running KSQL Statements From the Command Line¶
In addition to using the KSQL CLI or launching KSQL servers with the
--queries-file configuration, you can also execute KSQL statements directly
from your terminal. This can be useful for scripting.
The following examples show common usage:
This example uses pipelines to run KSQL CLI commands.
echo -e "SHOW TOPICS;\nexit" | ksql
This example uses the Bash here document (
<<) to run KSQL CLI commands.
ksql <<EOF SHOW TOPICS; SHOW STREAMS; exit EOF
This example uses a Bash here string (
<<<) to run KSQL CLI commands on an explicitly defined KSQL server endpoint.
ksql http://localhost:8088 <<< "SHOW TOPICS; SHOW STREAMS; exit"
This example creates a stream from a predefined script (
application.sql) using the
RUN SCRIPTcommand and then runs a query by using the Bash here document (
cat /path/to/local/application.sql CREATE STREAM pageviews_copy AS SELECT * FROM pageviews EMIT CHANGES;
ksql http://localhost:8088 <<EOF RUN SCRIPT '/path/to/local/application.sql'; exit EOF
RUN SCRIPTcommand only supports a subset of KSQL CLI commands, including running DDL statements (CREATE STREAM, CREATE TABLE), persistent queries (CREATE STREAM AS SELECT, CREATE TABLE AS SELECT), and setting configuration options (SET statement). Other statements and commands such as
SHOW STREAMSwill be ignored.