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To secure your Stream processing applications, configure the security settings in the corresponding Kafka producer and consumer clients, and then specify the corresponding configuration settings in your Kafka Streams application.
Kafka supports cluster encryption and authentication, including a mix of authenticated and unauthenticated, and encrypted and non-encrypted clients. Using security is optional.
Here a few relevant client-side security features:
- Encrypt data-in-transit between your applications and Kafka brokers
- You can enable the encryption of the client-server communication between your applications and the Kafka brokers. For example, you can configure your applications to always use encryption when reading and writing data to and from Kafka. This is critical when reading and writing data across security domains such as internal network, public internet, and partner networks.
- Client authentication
- You can enable client authentication for connections from your application to Kafka brokers. For example, you can define that only specific applications are allowed to connect to your Kafka cluster.
- Client authorization
- You can enable client authorization of read and write operations by your applications. For example, you can define that only specific applications are allowed to read from a Kafka topic. You can also restrict write access to Kafka topics to prevent data pollution or fraudulent activities.
When applications are run against a secured Kafka cluster, the principal running the application must have the ACL
--cluster --operation Create set so that the application has the permissions to create
This example is based on the Confluent blog post Apache Kafka Security 101. The purpose is to configure a Kafka Streams application to enable client authentication and encrypt data-in-transit when communicating with its Kafka cluster.
A complete demo application is available at SecureKafkaStreamsExample.java in the Confluent Examples repository.
This example assumes that the Kafka brokers in the cluster already have their security setup and that the necessary SSL certificates are available to the application in the local filesystem locations. For example, if you are using Docker then you must also include these SSL certificates in the correct locations within the Docker image.
The snippet below shows the settings to enable client authentication and SSL encryption for data-in-transit between your Kafka Streams application and the Kafka cluster it is reading and writing from:
# Essential security settings to enable client authentication and SSL encryption bootstrap.servers=kafka.example.com:9093 security.protocol=SSL ssl.truststore.location=/etc/security/tls/kafka.client.truststore.jks ssl.truststore.password=test1234 ssl.keystore.location=/etc/security/tls/kafka.client.keystore.jks ssl.keystore.password=test1234 ssl.key.password=test1234
Configure these settings in the application for your
StreamsConfig instance. These settings will encrypt any
data-in-transit that is being read from or written to Kafka, and your application will authenticate itself against the
Kafka brokers that it is communicating with. Note that this example does not cover client authorization.
// Code of your Java application that uses the Kafka Streams library Properties settings = new Properties(); settings.put(StreamsConfig.APPLICATION_ID_CONFIG, "secure-kafka-streams-app"); // Where to find secure Kafka brokers. Here, it's on port 9093. settings.put(StreamsConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, "kafka.example.com:9093"); // // ...further non-security related settings may follow here... // // Security settings. // 1. These settings must match the security settings of the secure Kafka cluster. // 2. The SSL trust store and key store files must be locally accessible to the application. settings.put(CommonClientConfigs.SECURITY_PROTOCOL_CONFIG, "SSL"); settings.put(SslConfigs.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_LOCATION_CONFIG, "/etc/security/tls/kafka.client.truststore.jks"); settings.put(SslConfigs.SSL_TRUSTSTORE_PASSWORD_CONFIG, "test1234"); settings.put(SslConfigs.SSL_KEYSTORE_LOCATION_CONFIG, "/etc/security/tls/kafka.client.keystore.jks"); settings.put(SslConfigs.SSL_KEYSTORE_PASSWORD_CONFIG, "test1234"); settings.put(SslConfigs.SSL_KEY_PASSWORD_CONFIG, "test1234"); StreamsConfig streamsConfiguration = new StreamsConfig(settings);
If you incorrectly configure a security setting in your application, it will fail at runtime, typically right after you
start it. For example, if you enter an incorrect password for the
ssl.keystore.password setting, an error message
similar to this would be logged and then the application would terminate:
# Misconfigured ssl.keystore.password Exception in thread "main" org.apache.kafka.common.KafkaException: Failed to construct kafka producer [...snip...] Caused by: org.apache.kafka.common.KafkaException: org.apache.kafka.common.KafkaException: java.io.IOException: Keystore was tampered with, or password was incorrect [...snip...] Caused by: java.security.UnrecoverableKeyException: Password verification failed
Monitor your Kafka Streams application log files for such error messages to spot any misconfigured applications quickly.