Migrate Confluent Cloud ksqlDB applications

To deliver the benefits of new features and improvements as soon as they become available, new versions of Confluent Cloud ksqlDB are deployed frequently. Most of these deployments are invisible to you as a user, requiring no action on your part.

Backward incompatibility comes in various forms, including changes to serialization formats, data models, and the SQL syntax. To continue running your application from earlier versions of ksqlDB, you may need to migrate your workload to an application that’s backed by the production-available version. This document provides a simple process to guide you through this migration.


We will never automatically upgrade your ksqlDB application to use a backward-incompatible release.

Port the application’s schema

You can run the following commands by using the Confluent Cloud Console interface or the ksqlDB CLI. If you choose to use the ksqlDB CLI, you may find the SPOOL command to be helpful, because it captures all the output from your session to a file on your local filesystem. For more information, see Accessing a ksqlDB application in Confluent Cloud with API keys.

Follow these steps to complete the migration process:

  1. Capture all stream definitions:

  2. Copy the SQL statements that created each stream and save them to a file, ignoring KSQL_PROCESSING_LOG. You will run these statements in a later step.

  3. Capture all table definitions:

  4. Copy the SQL statements that created each table and save them to your schema file.

  5. Capture custom types:

  6. Convert the LIST TYPES output into CREATE TYPE <name> AS <schema> syntax by obtaining the name from the first column and the schema from the second column of the output. Save these statements to your schema file.

  7. Order all captured SQL statements by dependency: you’ll now have the list of all SQL statements required to rebuild the schema, but they are not yet ordered in terms of dependencies. You must reorder the statements to ensure each statement comes after any other statements it depends on.

  8. Update the captured SQL statements to take into account any changes in syntax or functionality between the old and new ksqlDB versions.

  9. Destroy your old application using the web interface or Confluent Cloud CLI. If you don’t do this, both the old and new applications will be publishing to sink topics, resulting in undefined behavior.

  10. Provision a new Confluent Cloud ksqlDB application, backed by your existing Kafka cluster, by using the web interface or the Confluent Cloud CLI.

  11. If you want your new application to consume all of your Kafka data from the earliest offset, add the following line to the beginning of your schema file: SET 'auto.offset.reset'='earliest';

  12. Build the schema in the new application by executing each SQL statement in your schema file from the previous steps. This is best achieved by using the RUN SCRIPT command from a KSQL CLI session, which takes a file as its input.

  13. Rebuild application state.

Porting the database schema to the new application causes ksqlDB to start processing data. If you used SET 'auto.offset.reset'='earliest', the new application begins processing all data from the beginning of each input topic. The application will be processing data that the old application has already processed.


Source data that the old application processed may no longer be available in Kafka for the new application to process, for example, topics that have limited retention. It’s possible that the new application has different results from the previous application.

Persistent queries that output to an existing Kafka topic may produce duplicate rows when replaying input data. For example, the following persistent query writes its output to a topic named sink_topic:

CREATE STREAM output_stream WITH (kafka_topic=’sink_topic’, value_format=’json’) AS
  SELECT * FROM input_stream EMIT CHANGES;

If the same query is recreated in a new ksqlDB application using the existing Kafka cluster, that output is duplicated if the query consumes from earliest.